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Ferawati, N.M.; Widyawati, A.E.; Mustikawati, G.; Saputra, V.; Arsan, Z.; Anggraeni, D.E., 2022. The combination use of Butorphanol, Medetomidine, and Midazolam in anesthesia of Sumatran Rhino in SRS Way Kambas National Park [in Indonesian]. Acta Veterinaria Indonesiana 2022 (Special issue), 1-8

Location: Asia - South East Asia - Indonesia - Sumatra
Subject: Diseases
Species: Sumatran Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Sumatran rhino is a critically endangered species and their population decreased every year. Currently, there are 8 Sumatran rhinos living in the semi-in situ habitat of SRS in Way Kambas National Park (TNWK). Dental check-ups and dental floating are one of the routine medical procedures performed under anesthesia for Sumatran rhinos at SRS. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of using anesthetic combination of Butorphanol, Medetomidine and Midazolam during the dental floating procedure. Data were collected on three adult male rhinos in SRS aged 10 years (1st male), 15 years (2nd male), and 21 years (3rd male) and they were not fasted before anesthesia. The anesthetic method is divided into three stages: induction, maintenance/supplementary and antidote (recovery). The anesthetic drugs that were used are 40-50 mg Butorphanol, 3-4 mg Medetomidine and 15 mg Midazolam by intramuscular (IM) injection. Data were collected by taking the result of respiration rate, body temperature rate and heart rate from each stage. Induction using a combination of drugs Butorphanol, Medetomidine and Midazolam showed an average anesthetic effect at 6±2.6 minutes and the average sternal recumbency effect appeared at 24±16.5 minutes. Rhinos were seen standing still, lost consciousness, relaxed penis, hypersalivation, did not respond to the environment, until a sternal recumbency response appeared. Data collection on physiological parameters (body temperature, respiration, heart rate) and oxygen saturation was carried out after the rhino was in the position of sternal recumbency every 3-5 minutes during the process. The average value of oxygen saturation was 98.5% (1st male), 94% (2nd male), and 91% (3rd male), the average value of body temperature examination was 36.90c (1st male), 36.90c (2nd male), and 37.30c (3rd male), the average respiration rates were 13.5x/minute (1st male), 12.8x/minute (2nd male), and 15.7x/minute (3rd male) , and the average heart rate values ??were 46 beats/minute (1st male), 39x/minute (2nd male), and 43.9 x/minute (3rd male). The supplementary drug used during the procedure is Ketamine which provides a longer sedative effect. The use of Naltrexone and Atipamezole as a reversal or antidote shows a fairly rapid effect, which is 1 minute after intravenous (IV) administration. The combination of Butorphanol, Medetomidine and Midazolam can provide a good anesthetic effect characterized by good muscle relaxation, normal heart rate and respiration rate responses.

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