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Pollock, K.E.; O'Brien, J.K.; Roth, T.L.; Proudfoot, J.; Niederlander, J.; Micheas, L.; Robeck, T.R.; Stoops, M.A., 2020. Anti-Müllerian hormone in managed African and Asian rhino species. General and Comparative Endocrinology 294 (113487): 1-9

Location: Captive
Subject: Diseases
Species: All Rhino Species

Original text on this topic:
Serum collected across the lifespan of four managed rhino species: black (Diceros bicornis, n = 16), white (Ceratotherium simum simum, n = 19), greater one-horned (GOH, Rhinoceros unicornis, n = 11) and Sumatran (Dicerorhinus sumatrensis, n = 6) were validated and analyzed in an anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) enzyme- linked immunoassay. Concentrations of AMH were examined over time, between sexes and throughout different reproductive states which included n = 3 female white rhinos immunocontracepted with porcine zona pellucida (pZP). Across species, males produced higher AMH concentrations compared to females. Among males, AMH concentrations varied by species aside from comparable values secreted between black and white rhinos. The GOH and Sumatran rhino secreted the highest and lowest male AMH concentrations, respectively. However, within each species, AMH concentrations were similar across male age categories. Preliminary insight into male AMH changes from birth to sexual maturity suggest its potential as a marker for onset of testicular maturation. Female black, GOH and Sumatran rhinos secreted comparable AMH concentrations which were higher than those in white rhino. Within each species, inter-individual variation in AMH secretion occurred among females of similar age. While AMH secretion did not differ across the ages sampled for female white (4->26 yr) and GOH (4–26 yr) rhinos, black and Sumatran rhinos >26 and <4 yr, respectively secreted lower AMH compared to conspecific females 7–26 yr of age. Two idiopathic infertility cases corresponded to low (outside species range) AMH values. The establishment of normative AMH concentrations in managed African and Asian rhinos provides an additional metric beyond traditional sex steroids to assess gonadal function. Further work is needed to determine if AMH can predict fertility potential in rhinos.

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