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Godfrey, R.W.; Pope, C.E.; Dresser, B.L.; Bavister, B.D.; Andrews, J.C.; Olsen, J.H., 1990. An attempt to superovulate a southern white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum simum). Theriogenology 33: 231

Location: World
Subject: Reproduction
Species: White Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Embryo transfer in conjunction with superovulation. One technique that will be beneficial is embryo transfer in conjunction with superovulation. This study was designed to evaluate the response of a female Ceratotherium simum simum to a superovulation hormone regimen. The animal was 27 years old and was scheduled to be euthanized due to infirmities.
Hormone treatment. On the first day of treatment (day 0), 500 ug of cloprostenol (Estrumate, Haver) was given I.M. On days 1 through 21, altrenogest (Regu-Mate, Hoechst-Roussel) was administered orally at a dose of 2.2 mg/50 kg of body weight/day. Regu-Mate was mixed with the daily feeding of grain. On day 19, 5000 IU of pregnant mare's serum gonadotropin (PMSG, Calbiochem) was given I.M. On day 22 an I.M. injection of 2500 IU of PMSG was given. On day 23, a cloprostenol injection (500 ug, I.M.) was given. On day 26, 500 ug of gonadotropin releasing hormone (Cystorellin, CEVA) was administered I.M.
Artificial insemination. On day 28, frozen white rhinoceros semen was thawed at 35?C for 90 sec, and diluted 1:2 with Test-yolk buffer to a final volume of 1.5 ml. The sperm was maintained at ambient temperature for 45 to 60 min prior to insemination. A swine AI catheter was used to deposit 260.4 x 106 total sperm in the posterior third of the cervix. Twenty-five minutes after sperm deposition, 360 ml of T-61 Euthanasia Solution (Hoechst-Roussel) was administered I.V. Approximately 1.5 hr after euthanasia the reproductive tract was removed and transported to the lab. The uterine body and horns were flushed with sterile phosphate buffered saline, and the flushings were examined for the presence of oocytes or sperm. Antral follicles on one ovary were aspirated in an attempt to recover oocytes.
Results. No oocytes or sperm were found in the uterine flushings, and no oocytes were recovered by aspirating follicles. Five oocytes were recovered from the remaining ovary after the follicles were cut open and the wall of the follicle was scraped. After in vitro maturation of oocytes for 32 h and incubation for 24 h with rhinoceros sperm (4-8 x 105 ml) there were no visible indications of fertilization. Mucus collected from the vagina on days 27 and 28 had the characteristic ferning pattern of estrual mucus. Although the male rhinoceros was not in the same enclosure as the female, there was an increase in the interest level of the male towards the female on day 25. These results suggest that follicular growth can be stimulated in the white rhinoceros The timing and/or dose of hormone treatments may need to be adjusted since there was no evidence of ovulation.

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