user: pass:

Schaffer, N.E.; Beehler, B.A.; Jeyendram, R.S.; Balke, B., 1990. Methods of semen collection in an ambulatory greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Zoo Biology 9: 211-221, figs. 1-3, table 1

Location: World
Subject: Reproduction - Management methods
Species: Indian Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Standard electrical probes used for domestic animals could not be utilized since they usually rolled in the gas-expanded rectum of the rhino. Because of this, the electrodes would inter-mittently lose contact with the rectal mucosa and therefore current could not be effectively controlled. The development of an inflatable rectal probe allowed complete and secure contact of electrodes to the mucosa. After placing the probe in the rectum, a sturdy 28 cm diameter balloon taped securely to the body of the probe (2.5 cm O.D. x 60 cm PVC pipe) was inflated with an air-mattress hand pump. The balloon pressed three loosely held (by wire) encircling copper electrode strips (25 cm x 4 cm) into contact with the mucosa. Air in the balloon was retained by a PVC hydrate-type cutoff valve. A 0.8 cm tube through the entire body of the probe allowed intestinal gas to exit without filling the rectum. Thus, the probe remained in contact with the mucosa.
After inflating the balloon until the probe was in contact with the rectal mucosa, the cutoff valve was closed. The hand pump was removed and electrode leads were connected to wires hanging from the ceiling. The rhino was then free to move around the exhibit area during electrical stimulation by a 20 cycle electroejaculation machine. Three second sine wave pattern stimuli were applied at the 2V, 40 mA level for two series of 60-80 pulses each. With a 5 minute rest interval between series, the total procedure took from 10-15 minutes. The procedure was terminated if the animal became irritated.
Results. The inflatable probe was easily inserted and removed when deflated. Electrical pulses at the 2V level were kept consistent as monitored by the strip chart patterns , but amperages varied between 40-50 mA during stimulation. Electrical stimulation by itself did not produce erection or ejaculation. The animal would stand or walk around his cage and occasional muscle contractions were seen in his rear legs. He did not become agitated (flicking his ears, rapid movement) unless amperages rose above 50 mA, and at that point the procedure was then terminated.
Electrical stimulation followed by penile massage produced sperm counts comparable to the combination of rectal and penile massage. Total sperm counts from this combination were lower than rectal and penile massage probably due to low sample volumes obtained. Following electroejaculation, longer massage periods (20-30 minutes) were necessary to induce let-down of the penis from the sheath, in comparison to when only penile massage was performed. Ejaculates were not forceful and the volumes were small but the penis became erect. The animal was always restless following electroejaculation. so penile massage trials were not repeated..

[ Home ][ Literature ][ Rhino Images ][ Rhino Forums ][ Rhino Species ][ Links ][ About V2.0]