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Schaffer, N.E.; Beehler, B.A.; Jeyendram, R.S.; Balke, B., 1990. Methods of semen collection in an ambulatory greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Zoo Biology 9: 211-221, figs. 1-3, table 1

Location: World
Subject: Reproduction - Management methods
Species: Indian Rhino

Original text on this topic:
For rectal massage, an operator inserted a plastic-sleeved, lubricated hand through the anal sphincter and then manually massaged the accessory glands through the mucosa of the caudal rectum. The prostate and bulbourethral ogland, which were about 10-15 cm proximally to the anal sphincter, were massaged with rhythmic side-to-side downward pressure by the operator's fist. Massage proceeded in 5 minute intervals with resting 1-2 minutes between intervals. Total time for massage never exceeded 15-20 minutes.
Results. The rhino was initially reluctant (flicking his tail and walking around) to have a plastic-sleeved, lubricated hand pass through the anus, but after four to five sessions, he became receptive to palpation. The rhino's penis would drop from the sheath during rectal massage, but never became fully erect. Fluid drippled from the penis only once, after it had dropped from the sheath during rectal massage.
Although the total stimulation period was not shortened by combining rectal and penile procedures, the seminal fluids obtained by rectal massage followed with penile massage had higher sperm concentrations than penile massage alone.

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