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Berkeley, E.V.; Kirkpatrick, J.F.; Schaffer, N.E.; Bryant, W.M.; Threlfall, W.R., 1997. Serum and fecal steroid analysis of ovulation, pregnancy, and parturition in the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis). Zoo Biology 16 (2): 121-132, figs. 1-4, tables 1-2 -<121::AID-ZOO3>3.0.CO;2-C

Location: Captive - North America
Subject: Captivity - Zoo Records
Species: Black Rhino

Original text on this topic:
A 29 year-old multiparous black rhinoceros female at the Sedgwick County Zoo in Wichita, KS, was used for this study. She was housed alone in a pachyderm building with two adjoining indoor stalls that led to an outside yard. A restraining chute for blood collection and use of ultrasound consisted of collapsible aluminum gates set in the transfer passages of the building. Fecal and serum samples were collected from March 31, 1992 (day -64) to September 1, 1993 (day 486), with day 0 = day of mating. The female had calved successfully twice (her last calf was born in 1976), but the last 3 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortions (at 9 months of gestation in October 1989, at 10 months in April 1991, and at 3 months in December 1991). The reasons for these abortions were unknown, but may have included poor body condition or luteal/placental progesterone insufficiency.

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