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Skinner, J.D.; Smithers, R.H.N., 1990. The mammals of the southern African subregion, new edition. Pretoria, University of Pretoria, pp. i-xxxii, 1-771

Location: World
Subject: Behaviour - Fighting
Species: Black Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Although adult bulls are inclined to be aggressive towards other bulls, they deliberately tend to avoid contact. Serious fighting, however, does take place, especially between bulls over a female in oestrus, between bulls and cows, but rarely between cows. There is a higher mortality in males (11 cases) than females (five cases) (Hitchins & Anderson, 1983). In meetings between bulls there may be some testing behaviour, which takes the form of one rushing forward with lowered head and screaming, to simply lifting the head and staring. A bull will approach a cow with a stiff-legged gait, head swinging from side to side, or may jerk the horn in the air. If the cow shows signs of aggression, the bull usually retires. In fighting, the front horn is used to buffet the other, the action taking place with tail raised, ears flattened and with much screaming and squealing.

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