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Bigalke, R.C., 1978. Mammals: pp. 981-1048

In: Werger, M.J.A. Biogeography and ecology of Southern Africa. Amsterdam, Junk (Monographia Biologicae, vol. 31): vol. 2, pp. 663-1439

Location: World
Subject: Behaviour - Social Behaviour
Species: Black Rhino

Original text on this topic:
There appears to be some uncertainty over social organization. Authors such as Schenkel & Schenkel-Hulliger and Joubert & Eloff found no evidence of territoriality. However Owen-Smith (1975) regards the species as being territorial and, contrary to conventional beliefs, finds little difference between the social system of Ceratotherium, which he studied intensively, and Diceros. Only 3.4 per cent of white rhino groupings included more than three individuals against 1.7 per cent for black rhino which is usually said to be much more solitary. Black rhino subadults are however usually found solitarily while in white rhino associations of several individuals are relatively common.

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