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Schaffer, N.E.; Beehler, B.A.; Jeyendram, R.S.; Balke, B., 1990. Methods of semen collection in an ambulatory greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Zoo Biology 9: 211-221, figs. 1-3, table 1

Location: World
Subject: Reproduction - Management methods
Species: Indian Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Two different water-filled artificial vaginas (AV) were constructed. A water-filled AV similar to a standard domestic animal AV which provides the warmth and pressure needed to induce ejaculation was developed. Briefly, an 18 cm x 50 cm PVC pipe was used as support for two 15 cm latex liners: one inside the other. The outside liner was stretched over each end of the pipe. The cavity between the latex and pipe was then approximately half-filled with warm water (ca. 35?C - 45? C) through a sealable hole in the pipe. The other latex insert was stretched over one end of the pipe, with the other end sealed (vulcanized) except for a 3 cm hole that could be stretched over a 50 cc centrifuge tube (polystyrene, American Scientific, McGraw-Park, IL). Because the AV weighed approximately 25-30 lb when filled, handles were fitted on both sides so it could be held by more than one operator. Lubricant was then applied to the interior of the AV. This AV covered the end and lateral folds of the erect penis.
A modified AV was developed based on the experience of the previous AV. A 15 cm diameter latex liner was doubled over and vulcanized together with a 15 cm diameter metal ring (within the latex) attached to a wooden handle. 'I'his handle allowed this 50 cm long AV to be held by only one operator. The other end of the folded liner was also vulcanized closed, except for an opening that could be stretched onto a 50 cc centrifuge tube. This AV was constructed to only cover the distal part (15-20 cm) of the penis. To determine the optimum temperature needed to induce ejaculation, two different temperature ranges (35-40 and 40-45 ?C) were employed in the AV.
Results. Inducing a fully erect penis by penile massage was required before an AV could be fitted. AVs intended to cover the penis had to have diameters large enough for the width of the penis when the lateral folds expanded into projections. The initial AV's construction with PVC pipe and its snug fit often resulted in abrasion to these lateral projections. This AV was abandoned for the modified lighter and all-latex AV that could be handled by one operator.
Although trauma to the penis was relieved by the modified AV, maintaining the erection after fitting the AV was still a problem. Only three of ten attempts with the AVs resulted in ejaculates. These samples had high volumes but poor sperm concentrations. These ejaculates occurred when the AV temperature was between 40-45?C.

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