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Schaffer, N.E.; Beehler, B.A.; Jeyendram, R.S.; Balke, B., 1990. Methods of semen collection in an ambulatory greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis). Zoo Biology 9: 211-221, figs. 1-3, table 1

Location: World
Subject: Reproduction - Management methods
Species: Indian Rhino

Original text on this topic:
A penile massage collection proceeded with two operators kneeling at the rear of the rhino to massage the penis. Rubbing the medial aspects of the rear legs and the stomach always induced let-down of the penis from the sheath so it could be massaged directly. When released from the sheath, the semi-erect penis curved caudally. Proximal to the curve were lateral, longitudinal folds. After the penis was released from the sheath, it was washed with warm water. Silicone gel was then smeared on the distal 15-20 cm of the penis (end of penis to beginning of lateral folds), but the penile tip was kept free of lubricant. Complete erection was induced by rubbing back and forth on the top and bottom of this area with one hand. Gentle rubbing would become more vigorous as the penis became erect. With erection, the curve of the penis straightened, swinging the tip of the penis forward. The lateral folds (20-25 cm in length) expanded into slightly cupped projections extending from the middle of the penis. A 60 cc syringe case was held over the tip of the penis to collect the ejaculate. Forceful ejaculations of seminal fluid occurred as the penis became fully erect. Occasionally, shaking of the back legs and thrusting of the penis would occur. Another operator would help support the penis as it became fully erect. The entire length of the fully erect penis was 60-70 cm. The tip of the penis needed to be covered at all times during stimulation since semen could squirt or dripple out at any time. After a forceful ejaculation, the penis would relax and the animal would not usually remain still for further manipulation. Periods to and ejaculation lasted from 10-20 minutes. If ejaculation did not occur at full erection, the penis was allowed to relax. The process was repeated until the rhino would no longer stand still, which usually occurred in 40-60 minutes.
Results. The rhino was the most receptive to penile massage. It was the most frequently successful of collection methods. Fluids from this method were characteristically clear and viscous with poor sperm concentration. Ejaculate volumes obtained from penile massage were consistently higher than the other methods investigated.

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