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Kjaersgaard, P., 1974. A note on M. articularis humeri in the wild boar, bear, tapir, and rhinoceros. Gegenbaurs Morphologisches Jahrbuch 120 (1): 143-145, figs. 1-2

Location: World
Subject: Anatomy - Muscles
Species: All Rhino Species

Original text on this topic:
Among domestic animals a muscle known as m. articularis humeri is present in the horse, pig, and cat. The present note concerns findings in animals from the Copenhagen Zoo. They are:
1. European wild boar. Sus scrofa L, F, 9 years.
2. Polar bear, Thalarctos maritimus L, Y, 22 years.
3. Indian tapir, Tapirus indicus L, 3, 8 years.
4. Sumatran rhinoceros, Rhinoceros s. Didermocerus sumatrensis L, F , old.
The identity of the articular muscle was established by its origin, insertion and position. In the rhinoceros (Fig. 2) a muscle arose from the caudal part of the scapula, very near the glenoid cavity. It passed the joint capsule caudally, and extended distally to join the brachial muscle near its origin. The had approximately the same dimensions as the articular muscle in the wild boar, and was, as the latter, fleshly and distinctly separated front the joint capsule by loose connective tissue. The muscle had no insertion on to the humerus (as in the horse), but its fibers continued among the fibers of the brachial muscle, from which they were indistinguishable In the only description of muscles in the rhinoceros (Beddard and Treves 1889) neither the articular nor the brachial muscle was mentioned.
M. brachialis and m. articulais humeri are both derived from the ventral brachial group. The muscle described corresponds to the m. articularis humeri of other perissodactyla, because of its origin, position, shape and size. Its appearance in Rhinoceros sumatrensis probably depends on a less complete muscular division in this species than in the horse and the tapir.

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