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Miller, R.E., 1994. Diseases of black rhinoceroses in captivity: pp. 180-185

In: Penzhorn, B.L. et al. Proceedings of a symposium on rhinos as game ranch animals. Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa, 9-10 September 1994: pp. i-iv, 1-242

Location: World
Subject: Management - Programs
Species: All Rhino Species

Original text on this topic:
A number of diseases of unusual nature and uncertain aetiology have affected black rhinoceroses (Diceros bicornis) in captivity. These diseases have played a significant role in limiting the growth of the captive black rhinoceros population. Haemolytic anemia is one example; in one survey of captive black rhinoceroses, it accounted for 40% of all adult deaths. A syndrome of mucocutaneous ulcers has had a similar impact and other poorly understood conditions include an apparently increased incidence of fungal pneumonia, haemosiderosis and encephalomalacia.
Although there are few, if any, reports of these syndromes in the wild, there are reports of similar diseases occurring in black rhinoceroses shortly after capture, and thus, these syndromes may have significance for black rhinoceroses maintained in even semi-captive situations. In contrast to the black rhinoceros, the diseases reported in captive white rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum) in North America are of a more routine nature and an apparently lower incidence.

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