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Siswomartono, D.; Reddy, S.; Ramono, W.; Manansang, J.; Tilson, R; Franklin, N.; Foose, T.J., 1996. The Sumatran rhino in Way Kambas National park, Sumatra, Indonesia. Pachyderm 21: 13-14, fig. 1

Location: World
Subject: Management - Programs
Species: Sumatran Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Despite great expectations and efforts, the captive breeding programme for Sumatran Rhinos, which commenced in 1984, has not been succesful. A total of 40 rhinos have been captured in three areas where independent projects have been conducted:
Indonesia (in cooperation with zoological organisations from the UK and USA)
Pennisula Malaysia and Sabah
A major problem is belived to be the unnatural conditions which are provided by the captive programs, i.e. in terms of diet, climate (erspecially exposure to excessive sunlight and its ultraviolet component), size and complexity of enclosures, and social configuration of the rhino. As a consequence, the concept of re-orienting the captive programs into breedings centres in a native habitat was developed.

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