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Pienaar, D.J., 1994. Social organization and behaviour of the white rhinoceros: pp. 87-92, tables 1-2

In: Penzhorn, B.L. et al. Proceedings of a symposium on rhinos as game ranch animals. Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa, 9-10 September 1994: pp. i-iv, 1-242

Location: World
Subject: Ecology - Population
Species: White Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Owen-Smith also gave the following annual mortality figures for white rhino: Adult males 3%; adult females 1,2%; subadults 3%, juvenile calves (0.5-2.5 years) 3.5% and infant calves (0-0,5 years) 8,3%.
Predation does not have a big influence on a white rhino population. There have been a few cases in the KNP where white rhino calfs were killed by lions. Animals with pieces of tail or ear missing that could indicate predation by hyaena are also seldom seen. Other accidental white rhino deaths include drowning, getting stuck in mud, failing off cliffs, being killed by elephants and burning in runaway fires.

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