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Pienaar, D.J., 1994. Social organization and behaviour of the white rhinoceros: pp. 87-92, tables 1-2

In: Penzhorn, B.L. et al. Proceedings of a symposium on rhinos as game ranch animals. Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa, 9-10 September 1994: pp. i-iv, 1-242

Location: Africa - Southern Africa - South Africa
Subject: Ecology - Population
Species: White Rhino

Original text on this topic:
The composition of the white rhino population in the south-western KNP was determined by ground surveys during 1988 and 1989. This population contained 16,8% adult males, 27,3% adult females, 32,4% subadults and 23,5% calves (N =469). This was very similar to the composition Owen-Smith described for the Umfolozi Game Reserve. The lower number of adult white rhino males in the KNP is probably a result of emigration by males out of the high density study area.
In 1961 the first white rhino were reintroduced to the KNP from the Umfolozi Game Reserve. By 1973 a total of 337 white rhino had been successfully relocated in the KNP. By 1993 this population had grown to 1876 animals. From 1980 to 1993 the white rhino population in the KNP showed an average annual growth of 8,4%'. Even the serious droughts of the 1980s did not affect this growth. Owen-Smith described a rate of increase of 8-9% per annum for the white rhino population in the Umfolozi-Hiuhluwe complex.
Table 2. Comparison of the demographic parameters of the white rhino populations in the Kruger National Park (KNP) and the Umfolozi Game Reserve (UGR).
Adults Subadults Subadult Calves Calves
Post-pubertal Pre-pubertal Juvenile Infant
Male Female Male Female
Age (years) 10-45 7-45 6-10 6-7 2,5-6 0,5-2,5 0-0,5
% of KNP 16,8 27,3 7,9 2,1 22,4 23,5
% of UGR 19,5 26,1 7,7 3,0 21,4 21,9

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