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Hall-Martin, A.; Knight, M.H., 1994. Conservation and management of black rhinoceros in South African national parks: pp. 11-19, figs. 1-2, tables 1-2

In: Penzhorn, B.L. et al. Proceedings of a symposium on rhinos as game ranch animals. Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa, 9-10 September 1994: pp. i-iv, 1-242

Location: Africa - Southern Africa - South Africa
Subject: Distribution - Records
Species: Black Rhino

Original text on this topic:
The introduction of black rhino into the smaller national parks commenced almost a decade prior to the KNP operation. With no D.b. minor available from Natal at the time, seven of the eastern ecotype D.b. michaeli were introduced from Kenya to Addo Elephant National Park in 1961-62 making it the the first 'black rhino sanctuary' established in South Africa through relocation of animals. In spite of initial poor management the population has grown to be the fifth largest population of this subspecies in Africa - hence its importance internationally and locally. The highly nutritious succulent thicket vegetation in Addo offers some of the most productive black rhino and elephant habitat in South Africa, and possibly Africa. The park comfortably supports densities of 2 elephant/ km? at present, while rhinos have been stocked, without signs of overt aggression, in the past at densities of ca 3 rhino/ km? which is greater than some of the highest free-ranging densities reported. The presently recommended density of 0,5 rhino/ km? (or a total of ce 40 animals), errs on the more conservative side, but still exceeds densities recommended from any other area in South Africa.
Monitoring the reproductive history and to some degree behaviour of all individuals since their introduction has given valuable insights into the management of rhinos in small parks. This has been incorporated into present management practices such as the policy of not introducing new animals into established home ranges, rather creating vacant areas within the sanctuary through fencing or purchasing surrounding land and later dropping the fences once the newcomers are established. This method was successfully undertaken with the reintroduction of a black rhino into Augrabies National Park from a zoo in Portugal.
The proposals to remove the D. b. michaeli from Addo and to make the productive habitat available for the conservation of the locally more important and rarer D. b. bicornis, would further the conservation effort of this subspecies. The NPB's policy change concerning the D. b. michaeli population stems from a desire to conserve only indigenous taxa in each park. Furthermore, the fact that the Kenyan populations are on the increase, and that there is increasing danger to the Namibian populations has strengthened the argument to remove the Addo population. The proposed selling of the Addo rhino is designed to cover costs associated with capture and transport, purchase of extra D. b. bicomis from Namibia, fencing and the purchase of further land in the Addo vicinity to house the incoming rhinos. Thus the money would go directly back into rhino conservation, an added advantage and incentive in any wildlife programme, made possible with the NPB's financial independence arising from their statutory status.

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