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Hall-Martin, A.; Knight, M.H., 1994. Conservation and management of black rhinoceros in South African national parks: pp. 11-19, figs. 1-2, tables 1-2

In: Penzhorn, B.L. et al. Proceedings of a symposium on rhinos as game ranch animals. Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa, 9-10 September 1994: pp. i-iv, 1-242

Location: Africa - Southern Africa - South Africa
Subject: Distribution - Status
Species: Black Rhino

Original text on this topic:
This has been incorporated into present management practices such as the policy of not introducing new animals into established home ranges, rather creating vacant areas within the sanctuary through fencing or purchasing surrounding land and later dropping the fences once the newcomers are established. This method was successfully undertaken with the reintroduction of a black rhino into Augrabies National Park from a zoo in Portugal.
The repatriation of D. b. bicornis populations into two arid South African national parks (Augrabies and Vaalbos) in 1985 and 1987, respectively, was the initial phase of a plan by the NPB to repatriate the correct ecotype to its former range in South Africa (Fig. 1 & 2).
Thus, the initial founding population of 12 animals (plus a further two added later) brought in from Etosha was subdivided between two satellite parks, Augrabies and Vaalbos, with a plan to interchange individuals, particularly breeding males, once the first generation reached breeding age.
The population has increased at a rate of 5 % per annum to reach a total of 20 animals. Although one unsuccessful exchange between the two parks has been done, five unrelated individuals from both parks have been used to establish a third population in the Karoo National Park in the last two years (Fig. 2). The incorporation of the later park makes the possibility of increasing the maximum founder population (MFP) for the three parks to about 20 animals, thus maximizing their reproductive potential.

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