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Polet, G.; Tran Van Mui; Nguyen Xuan Dang; Bui Huu Manh; Baltzer, M., 1999. The Javan rhinos, Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus, of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: current status and management implications. Pachyderm 27: 34-48, figs. 1-2, photos 1-7, tables 1-4

Location: Asia - East Asia - Vietnam
Subject: Morphology - Size
Species: Javan Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Photo 1 shows a rhino (rhino 1) where a height-marker is visible behind the animal, just in front of its ears. The height of the marker is one meter (32 mm on the picture, about 40 mm at rhino's shoulder when accounted for perspective). The height at the shoulder of this individual is estimated to be 130 cm (52 mm on the picture/40 mm) which is slightly larger than the estimate presented (110- 120 em) by Sung et al. (1 998).
Sung et al. (1998) estimate that the R. s. annamiticus is about 75 to 80% of the size of a R. s. sondaicus. They base this estimate on the ratio of the width of the hind feet measured in Cat Loc (20-23 cm) versus those recorded in Ujong Kulon (25-28 cm). Using this relation in size and estimating the weight of a R. s. sondaicus to be 1,600 kg, it may be estimated that a R. s. annaniiticus weighs about 650 to 800 kg (1,600 kg x 0.753 to 0.83).
The small size of the footprints from Cat Loc is more in accordance with the size of footprints of Sumatran rhinos (Dicerorhinus sumatraensis) or with sub-adult R.s. sondaicus (Sung et al., 1998). Since all footprints from Cat Loc are between 20 and 23 cm in width, it would be hard to conclude that the Cat Loc population consists only of subadults. From the pictures presented in this article it is beyond doubt that the Cat Loc rhinos are Javan and not Sumatran rhinos. Sung et al. (1998) argue that the poor quality of the habitat in Cat Loc may have contributed to the smallness of R.s. annamiticus and that the Ujung Kulon and Cat Loc populations belong to clearly distinct gene pools. To stress this point, they also suggest for R.s. annamiticus the vernacular name 'Vietnamese rhino' instead of using the tenn 'Javan rhino' in Vietnam.
Looking at the locations, dates and times that the pictures were taken, combined with the fact that adult Javan rhinos are generally regarded as solitary animals, an attempt can be made to deduct whether the pictures are all of the same or of different individuals. The rhinos on photos 1 and 2, 3 and 4, 6 and 7 are almost certainly of the same individual (each pair of pictures has been taken at the same place and very shortly after each other). Hence it is deducted that all pictures are of at most four different individuals (including the possibility that all pictures are of the same individual).

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