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Bordoloi, C.C.; Kalita, H.C.; Kalita, S.N.; Baishya, G., 1993. Scapula of the Great Indian rhino (Rhinoceros unicornis). Indian Veterinary Journal 70 (June): 540-542

Location: Asia - South Asia - India - Assam
Subject: Morphology - Skeleton
Species: Indian Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Rhinoceros unicornis, Kaziranga, Assam, India. The scapula is a well-developed but less triangular flat bone. It is placed obliquely downward and forward on the anterolateral aspect of the thoracic cavity. It presents two surfaces, three borders and three angles. The lateral surface is divided nearly into two equal deeper fossae by the presence of a well-developed triangular scapular spine. The tuber spine was tuberous, rough, well-developed and triangular in shape, which was found to curve greatly in its middle part, and almost overhanged the infraspinatus fossa. Both the infraspinatus and supraspinatus fossae were concave and deeper which demonstrated uneven surfaces. There were two distinct nutrient foramina, one at the distal extremity of the spine and the other at the distal extremity of the infraspinatus fossa. The scapular spine diminished from the tuber spine to the distal part without forming the acromion process. The presence of some wide and smooth oblique impressions just below the nutrient foramina were also marked.
The medial surface of the rhino scapula was wide and relatively shallow, which was divided by a serrated irregular horizontal line into two nearly equal halves. The proximal half of this surface was rough while the distal half was smooth, which were further divided into two relatively deeper subscapular fossae.
The anterior border was convex, rough proximally and smooth distally, while the posterior border was thick and rough above, which was found to incline laterally to form the well developed infraspinatus fossa. The dorsal border was rough and curved cranio-caudally. The anterior angle was wider, while the caudal angle was rough and thick. The ventral angle revealed a well-developed glenoid canity which was wide and shallow. The neck of the scapula was wider and shorter.
The scapula is marked by the absence of the coracoid process in the tuber scapulae and the glenoid notch in the glenoid rim.

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