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Polet, G.; Tran Van Mui; Nguyen Xuan Dang; Bui Huu Manh; Baltzer, M., 1999. The Javan rhinos, Rhinoceros sondaicus annamiticus, of Cat Tien National Park, Vietnam: current status and management implications. Pachyderm 27: 34-48, figs. 1-2, photos 1-7, tables 1-4

Location: Asia - East Asia - Vietnam
Subject: Morphology - Size
Species: Javan Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Vietnam. The results of the analysis of dimensions and forms of plaster casts and field measurements are summarised in Table 3. Here it is noted that in general that the widths of the feet measured from casts and in the field are comparable, but the lengths of the feet measured in the field are generally one cm larger than those measured from casts.
The analysis of differences and dimensions and the form of plaster casts made of full prints and front hooves, suggests that there are six individual rhinos.
However, the analysis and comparison of the dimensions of 241 footprint sizes measured in the field shows that the range of variation is rather large. From 157 mm to 240 mm wide, and 187 mm to 258 mm long. The smallest footprint is 157 mm wide and 197 mm long, and the largest footprint is 240 mm wide and 248 mm long. It is concluded that these are the footprints of many different individuals. 90% (217 measurements) of the footprints' widths are within the range from 176 mm to 215 mm. There are 19 footprints shorter than 176 mm and five wider than 215 mm.
Among the footprints which are wider than 216 mm, there are three particularly large, of' which measurements were taken at three different locations. There is also a very large plaster cast of
135 mm wide and 246 mm long. All the other casts are less than 120 mm wide. Obviously, this is the footprint of a rhino different from the six rhinos that were recognised above. Based on the above analysis, the minimum number of rhinos in Cat Tien National Park is estimated to be seven.
Besides these seven individuals, there are a number of footprints of which the widths are beyond the above seven rhinos' range of dimensions. In addition, in the process of investigation there were many footprints recognised at different locations, but their plaster casts could not be made because they were not clear. There were also a number of locations in which there might be rhinos' footprints but the survey team could not reach them despite the fact that this survey has been the most intensive one ever. It is possible that several rhinos were not counted in this survey. Therefore, the maximum number of rhinos in Cat Tien National Park is estimated to be at least eight.
Table 3. Comparison of rhino footprint characteristics for identification of individuals: average dimensions of footprint plaster casts and measurements in the field.
Characteristics Foot plaster casts Footprints Front hoof
N = 111 N = 241 plaster casts
Width Length Width Length Width Length
[mm] [mm] [mm]
Rhino 1 (n=21) 191.2 217.9 191.1 228.3 106.0 46.9
Front hoof regularly round, wide, high
Rhino 2 (n=19) 202.1 222.9 195.8 234.7 111.9 33.7
Front hoof regularly round, wide
Rhino 3 (n=10) 196.6 219.7 194.6 232.0 107.6 47.4
Front hoof slanting, wide, high
Rhino 4 (n=29) 185.8 220.8 190.0 228.9 101.1 33.4
Front hoof regularly round, low, narrow
Rhino 5 (n=17) 187.0 207.4 190.0 218.6 93.4 47.1
Front hoof slanting on the right,high, narrow, hoof rim sharp
Rhino 6 (n=15) 191.1 210.1 187.5 218.5 96.4 44.4
Front hoof slanting on the left, high, narrow, hoof rim sharp

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