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Hofmeyr, J.M., 1984. Method of censusing and the status of the black rhinoceros (Diceros bicornis) in the Etosha National Park. South African Journal of Science 80: 187

Location: Africa - Southern Africa - Namibia
Subject: Ecology - Census Methods
Species: Black Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Marking techniques of individuals. Colour-coded reflector discs 20 mm in diameter and 3.5 mm thick, were in- serted at the base of the anterior aspect of the front and the lateral sides of back horns of adult and sub-adult rhinoceroses, to facilitate the positive identification of translocated animals. Disc components comprised reflective tape, with printing plate at the back and transparent polycarbonate on the surface. Three colours, red, green and yellow, were used. With the aid of a torch, spotlight and binoculars, marked rhinoceroses were identified at night when they came to waterholes to drink. Because of horn wear, reflectors are temporary and function for approximately 6 months when affixed with epoxy resin 0.5 - 1.0 cm below the horn surface. Ear tags were unsatisfactory and mostly tore out, but are nevertheless recommended, particularly for marking calves and juveniles.
Using reflectors, it was possible to plot the resettlement of 9 out of 10 rhinoceroses introduced to new surroundings in the Etosha National Park. The technique is recommended when monitoring and resettling rhinoceroses in arid and semi-arid environments, where they are required to drink at established water-points.

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