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Adcock, K., 1994. The relevance of 'territorial' behaviour in black rhino to their population management: pp. 82-86, fig. 1, table 1

In: Penzhorn, B.L. et al. Proceedings of a symposium on rhinos as game ranch animals. Onderstepoort, Republic of South Africa, 9-10 September 1994: pp. i-iv, 1-242

Location: Africa - Southern Africa - South Africa
Subject: Behaviour - Fighting
Species: Black Rhino

Original text on this topic:
Males. When a young bull does try to establish himself in a territory, he either has to do so in an unoccupied area, or fight another bull to win some turf. In Pilanesberg, such 'upstarts' have little hope of winning a territory off a prime-aged bull (ca 1 7-30 years old), but can drive out or kill older bulls who are on the decline physically. Old bulls, if not killed, will move out to a quiet part of their former range and live a fringe existence (in terms of rhino social life) until they die.
Females. Female rhino are largely tolerated in males' and each other's ranges. A significant number of females are killed by fighting injuries however. Old female black rhino seem to be particularly prone to sustaining injuries to their rear ends. This seems to indicate that they are not being tolerated; but whether this is because of their reluctance to mate with males, or whether other male or female rhino are exhibiting dominance over these grannies, is unknown.
Secondly, young females are not often killed, but some seem to be pushed to the periphery (socially speaking) and are the butt of some aggression. (One Pilanesberg female died at 10 years without having bred, after lurking around the perimeter of the park as a loner; while another sustained a rump wound and a floppy ear and sticks to another peripheral range).

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